According to Rhonda Y. Williams’ book, Concrete Demands: The Search for Black Power in the 20th Century, the Black Power Movement in Australia was initially fueled by the Victorian Aborigines Advancement League (AAL). The AAL’s president, Bob Maza, believed that Black Nationalism, as well as the teachings of Malcolm X, “could enhance indigenous people’s self-recovery.” In 1971, Denis Walker, an aboriginal revolutionary, scholar, political activitist, and Black Power activist announced the formation of Australia’s very own Black Panther Party in Queensland. He declared, “The Black Panther Party will be the vanguard for all depressed people, and in Australia the Aboriginals are the most depressed of all.” While the Black Panther Party in Australia utilized self-defense to fight for political freedoms, the Party also implemented helpful programs for its community including “a newspaper, free ‘child-minding centre,’ children’s breakfast program, legal service, and health clinic.” Much like the Black Panther Party in the United States, the Australian Black Panther Party’s ultimate goal was that of uplifting the community.
London, England had a successful Black Power Movement of its own. In fact, the British Black Panther Party fought for the same rights that the American Black Panthers fought for – proper education, fair housing, cultural independence, and equal protection under the law. With its many branches, the Party established its headquarters in Brixton. An article released by The Independent describes the movement as “part of the struggle against racism and for improved rights for all ethnic minorities in the UK.” The Black Power Movement in England reached a climax with the Mangrove Nine in 1971. The Mangrove was a Black restaurant in Notting Hill that was constantly harassed and raided by police who believed the restaurant to be a hiding place for radical Black activists. They arrested nine Black individuals, including Althea Jones-LeCointe and Barbara Beese, prominent Panthers of the time, and committed them to stand trial for a previous political demonstration that resulted in violence. This act was, of course, a ploy to bring an end to the Black Power Movement in England. Yet, the nine individuals were set free and acquitted. Instead, the police were nationally viewed as the guilty party and the trial shed light on the racist police brutality of the time. For this reason, and many more, the Black Power Movement in England was a huge success.
The most predominant representation of the Black Power Movement in Bermuda was that of the Black Beret Cadre. In fact, Dr. Quito Swan, a Bermudan Professor of History at Howard University, describes the Black Berets as “the vanguard for Black Power in Bermuda.” John Hinton Bassett, Jr. was “the primary organizer of the Cadre.” Together, he and Eliyahtsoor Ben Aaharon, and several other founded the Cadre. The most notorious member of the Cadre was Erskine Durrant “Buck” Burrows. According to Swan, he “stole from the rich and gave to the poor.” In Swan’s book, Black Power in Bermuda: The Struggle for Decolonization, the Black Beret Cadre struggled to bring about “economic, political, and cultural independence from Britain.” Just as the other Black Power advocates of the world, they formed social programs to push for self-determination among Black people. And, while authoritative figures of the island often paint the Black Beret Cadre as a band of harmful criminals, they did fight to bring about change for the Black community in Bermuda.
Fear of a Black Nation: Race, Sex and Security in Sixties Montreal, David Austin
Rhonda Y. Williams’ book, Concrete Demands: The Search for Black Power in the 20th Century
Black Power in Bermuda: The Struggle for Decolonization by Quito Swan
Reggae, Rastafari, and the Rhetoric of Social Control, a book written by Stephen A. King, Barry T. Bays III, P. Renee