The English name Egypt is derived from the Ancient Greek word for the country, Aígyptos. The Greek forms were borrowed from the late Egyptian (Amarna) name for the city Memphis, then called Hikuptah. This was a corruption of the earlier Egyptian name Hwt-ka-Ptah, meaning “home of the ka (soul) of Ptah.”
Pharaoh derives from “pharaô,” the Greek form of the Hebrew word par’oh, which is borrowed from the Ancient Egyptian word “pr-aa” (Great House). This is originally the term for the palace of Egyptian kings. The earliest instance where “pr-aa” is used specifically to address the ruler is in a letter to Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten), who reigned circa 1353–1336 B.C.