The Kanem Empire (circa 700–1376)
At its height, the Kanem Empire encompassed an area covering not only much of Chad but also parts of southern Libya (Fezzan) and eastern Niger, northeastern Nigeria and northern Cameroon. The empire reportedly was able to field 40,000 cavalry. By the late 11th century, the Islamic Sayfawa (Saifawa) dynasty was founded by Humai (Hummay) ibn Salamna. The Sayfawa Dynasty ruled for 771 years, making it one of the longest-lasting dynasties in human history.