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5 Inventions By Enslaved Black Men Blocked By U.S. Patent Office

The Patent Act of 1793 and 1836 barred enslaved Africans from obtaining patents because they were not considered citizens.

In 1861, Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederate States of America, enacted a patent law that allowed enslaved Africans to receive patent protection for their inventions, according to

In 1870, the U.S. government passed a patent law giving all American men, including Blacks, the rights to their inventions.

slavery jo

Jo Anderson

Cyrus McCormick, considered the “Father of Agriculture,” has been widely credited, along with his father Robert McCormick, for revolutionizing the farming industry with the invention of the mechanical reaper. Little is reported about Jo Anderson, the Black man who worked closely with slave-holder McCormick on the machine.

Lester R. Godwin Jr., a retired curator of the McCormick Farm in Augusta and Rockbridge, Va., said that Anderson “has as much to do with the later development of the reaper as Cyrus McCormick.” Godwin would add, “Unfortunately, history likes to put things in neat boxes … and often those who are involved in the creation of something don’t get credit for it.”

McCormick’s grandson also acknowledged the work of Anderson in his 1931 book, “The Century of the Reaper.”

“Of that day in July 1831, when the reaper was first tested before an audience of friends, neighbors and skeptics in the Shenandoah Valley, Jo Anderson was there, the Negro slave who, through the crowded hours of recent weeks, had helped build the reaper.”

What people are saying

86 thoughts on “5 Inventions By Enslaved Black Men Blocked By U.S. Patent Office

  1. Happy Black History Month!

    While these 5 inventors are being recognized, one must wonder about the countess others time forgot. Maybe even had their inventions or intellectual property stolen by "masters".

  2. DeOnna White says:

    I can't stand to hear or read about buying freedom. I don't think I would have made it back then.

  3. D Oliver Martin says:

    Dont get a mortgage then (lol),, the rules may have been changed, but the concept i s still the same…The bank owns your soul….( parody on the company store song)..look it up..

  4. DeOnna White says:

    D Oliver Martin already been there and done that one to. I was 32 when I purchased my first home on my own. I gave the house back when masa thought firing me wrongfully was going to pay the mortgage. Bankruptcy then and in the clear now. New life.

  5. Die for me,and you live forever

  6. Mia Hansford says:

    This is beautiful. However on Henry Boyd, someone needs to check their facts or dates. The dates are illogical. He would have to have been over 110 when he started his furniture company. Please check the facts! I figure that either his son or daughter started the company and the writer omitted that info, or Mr. Boyd started his company at a date other than the one in the article. Either way, though, I would like to know the real details!

  7. It is not far fetched that Black Slaves invented many things they did not get credit for. Naturally, they were the one doing the work, so it is commonsensical that they would come up with ways to make their work easier & much less back-breaking.

  8. The dates in the article are correct. He purchased his freedom in 1826 at the age of 24 and started his own company in 1836 as indicated. He was not able to obtain a patent so HE stamped his name on the beds that he made. Not sure what you read but if you had any doubts, you could have Googled it yourself rather than take away from article by sharing your doubts.

  9. Mia Hansford says:

    When I read the article, it said he began his company in 1936.

  10. Tracy Dornelly says:

    Mia Hansford A correction was made. Thanks for pointing it out.

  11. Mia Hansford says:

    Tracy Dornelly, The article is a powerful one. I almost did not make the remark, but I got up my nerve. These men persevered against enormous odds. I never have read this newspaper before. Very glad to know about The Atlanta BlackStar.

  12. Mia Hansford says:

    Tracy Dornelly, The article is a powerful one. I almost did not make the remark, but I got up my nerve. These men persevered against enormous odds. I never have read this newspaper before. Very glad to know about The Atlanta BlackStar.

  13. The Black maid who worked for Ellen Louise Demorest used paper bags to fashion sewing patterns in New York City (before we were in Harlem ya'll). This gave her and her husband the idea to use tissue paper and fashion sewing patterns. Later on Butterick would be credited with using a mathematical system to improve this and is really give credit but he didn't invent it and neither did Demorest who made a LOT of money. In what little texts I could find, the Black maid is mentioned but NEVER her name. Was hoping some historian with access to records could find the woman's name and see if her family is still around.
    All of us must truly work to learn our history. How many well to do scholars in top level institutions would interact with people invented these things either back then or in this time? The levels of snobbishness skews the truth as well.
    Looks like the article only focuses on men but should be focus on both men and women. Truly this is what fuels all the feminism talk. Nonetheless it's a very good article.

  14. D Oliver Martin We must make a way for the majority of us to buy the homes outright with no mortgage to the banks, most of whom established themselves on slavery to boot. Otherwise we'll be removed time and again.

  15. Paula Lindsay says:

    So do we have a name of the person who started slavery in the US? Do we even know why, for sure, this was thought ok? Did England or Spain have slaves?

  16. Amanda Blount says:

    Paula, as sad as it was and is, all the world had slaves then. It was very common practice. In fact, tribes in Africa had slaves among themselves. — BUT, what we must focus on now is the fact there are STILL slaves all over the world that people are forgetting. It is still a VERY common practice in other countries! — Where is everyone helping those slaves?

  17. Ortney Covington says:

    The families of these men need to be paid in full! the family of the slave owners are probably rich right now


  19. Bee Mee says:

    Amanda Blount, Yes slavery isn't a recent concept or practise.. but the idea and rule and relations of the 'slave' and master were completely different to the transatlantic slave trade.. prior to this hellocast the' slaves' were allowed to own property, keep their indigenous names, worship their original god and so on and so forth.. Point blank Europeans created and organised a vicious assault to the earth's memory and its people and still carry on this murderous and monstrous ways today. NO SLAVERY was like the Transatlantic slavery and the Arab invasion into Afrika.


  20. Paula Lindsay says:

    We should try to find them. I learned hush puppies started with slaves telling their pups to be quiet as the fed what were huspuppies back then to fish. My son ate his and just grabbed for others on our first trip to the South years ago…goooooood things! I also heard but do not know for sure, that ice-cream and pop corn were discovered by slaves…..When white people say things not nice take those food items away!

  21. Robin Hughes says:

    That's right so don't ask why we don't have more of this and that!!!! Wait for it, Wait for it… is comes!!!!!!!!!

  22. Dave Misci says:

    The most interesting and sorrowful fact that you will be able to 'Verify' is that the First Black 'Slave" In America was actually enslaved by a fellow black man Who went to court to win the right to own John Casor as his rightful property. Here are two Wikipedia links that tell the history: Anthony Johnson Vs. John Casor: 1.) and 2.) . Once slavery was established … it was the West Dutch Indies Trading Company that payed rival African tribes to capture each other to be later sold in the Slave Trade. So, we can see a bad and indeed 'evil idea' was quickly spread. Another item of note is that even the white Irish, were enslaved here in America at the hand of England. And, yes even today sadly people all around the world are being enslaved. Young children, Girls, Boys Women, sex slaves etc., It is hard to believe that the press refuses to shine the light on these activities :/

  23. Jory Curry says:

    Thank you for the informative post.

  24. Juan Jose Escobales Ortiz Yes there has always been slaves, but none because of the color of their skin, or the excuse that they lacked real religion. MONEY WAS the motivator for slavery most of all. skin color and lack of religion was the excuse.

  25. From the bicycle to the ironing board to the traffic light there have been so many significant inventions by our ancestors and whether the powers that be like it or not we will get recognition for these achievements.

  26. Paula Lindsay You're right about the ice cream being discovered by slaves. It was created back during the Roman Empire. Not sure what they'd used to flavor it but the slaves would go to the mountains to get the snow.

  27. Leanne Franson says:

    D Oliver Martin Not quite sure if you default on your mortgage that you have no personal rights whatsoever, not to vote, not to move, marry, that you can be whipped to death, stripped naked and sold on public auction. I've got two mortgages, and it is my choice… and in fact having a mortgage (ie being a homeowner) confers respect, nor slavehood. No one has lynched me or mine for taking the wrong seat on the bus or winking at a white woman.

  28. Leanne Franson says:

    D Oliver Martin Not quite sure if you default on your mortgage that you have no personal rights whatsoever, not to vote, not to move, marry, that you can be whipped to death, stripped naked and sold on public auction. I've got two mortgages, and it is my choice… and in fact having a mortgage (ie being a homeowner) confers respect, nor slavehood. No one has lynched me or mine for taking the wrong seat on the bus or winking at a white woman.

  29. Leanne Franson says:

    Juan Jose Escobales Ortiz The first slaves were white? The people in the bible were middle eastern, not sure they counted as white. Egyptians were not "white". And African tribes already enslaved others, who they sold to Europeans to take to North America and other places. In any case, slavery has existed all over the world, it is true… and I find it rather appalling that Paula Lindsay doesn't know anything about it as an adult… one just has to google. But yes, the Bible says that you should obey and serve your slavemaster if he is a good one.
    One of the reasons why slaveholders in the "New World" were so keen on preaching the Bible to their slaves.

  30. D Oliver Martin says:

    Juan Jose Escobales Ortiz : Nice spin… but the hurt ful practices of the slave period in the US, IS still in play today: see white males KILLING Black people, and literally getting away with murder…go somewhere and the stares,"NOT wanted here".. the past practices of Roman, etc did not and does not bleed in to todays world….RACISM is what we are fighting today.. not slavery..

  31. Maurice Callis says:

    Yes England and Spain had slaves. The Dutch and Portugues were the leaders in terms of how many slaves they had. The US which is the country you hear most about really only accounted for 10 percent of slaves in the Atlantic Slave Trade. Juan is right in the fact that there were also white slaves in early times but, it was mostly Africans after the 15th century. 90 Percent of African slaves were imported into the Caribbean and South America. Another note, Slaves played a primary role in the history of the Americas.

  32. Randy Wilson says:

    D Oliver Martin yeah like oj simpson

  33. Bobby White says:

    And it took Confederate States of America President Jefferson Davis to Acknowledge their right to a Patent. But after the CSA surrender, the USA went right back to their ways of denial. Just one tid-bit of info you wont read in your American history books. Read the TRUTH . The South was Right.

    Kennedy Twins – index.htm
    and don't forget the Cotton Gin ….Ely Whitney my a_ _ .

  34. i dont trust anybody with the name paula

  35. The sad thing about it is are inventions are still being stolen…only this time we are complicit. We need to stop being so naive by letting people "appropriate" anything that we have created whether it be black music, clothing, hair products etc. We have done a poor job of keeping all things black in black hands.

  36. Jamie MrBrownstone Still says:

    Try reading actual slave journals written by slaves that were secretly educated (bc it was illegal for them to be educated). One thing ppl always think of is slaves getting beat unmercifully all the time. Read an u will find the truth. For instance if I were your slave and u paid good money for me would u beat me so that I was unable to work for u? It's not just actual history
    It's common sense. U will learn when slaves got bought on the market the healthiest men sold for the most. Key word HEALTHY. Everything was inspected from gums n teeth to fingernails. Not to say some weren't beaten bc there was. And slavery is wrong no matter how u treat em. Also there were black slave owners who bought or worked for their freedom who in turn bought slaves. Also the white man didn't go over and just kidnap a bunch of ppl in Africa… That's the biggest nonsense. I'm sure there were some kidnapped or stolen but the slave trade was coordinated out of Africa by other Africans who sold them. C'mon a bunch I whites going to a black
    Habitat greatly outnumbered kidnapping people without an uprising??? Again common sense. Read journals from actual slaves not a textbook. Again slavery is wrong, but to know the facts read it from the ones who were there..

  37. You cannot "rationalize" nor "sanitize" the dehumanizing European/white slave trade. Your attempts to somehow use the ole' Africans sold Africans into slavery is sad white-guilt historical "revisionism". It fails. You are obviously ignorant to "REAL" HIS-STORY! The slave system that was control by the countries of Europe were 300 years of inhuman treatment that used religion, law and lies to justify rape, murder AND the selling of human beings for "free labor" in a so-called "free country".. It took over 100 years of wars with Africa before the Dutch and other "white" European nations to "break" the people of Africa. You need to read about Chaka Zula and Queen Nizinga. It is sad that soooo many white scholars and whites like yourself -will try to "justify" white oppression, aggression, murder and rape and oppression by somehow implying that the victims of white supremacy are somehow "responsible" for the criminal and inhuman acts that were committed against generations of their offspring.

  38. Jamie MrBrownstone Still says:

    Danny Tennial not rationalizing anything.. Im just saying it wasnt all white. u aint even gotta look up history look at TODAYS NEWS…in Nigeria BOKA HARAM (black muslims) kidnapped 200 BLACK school girls to be sold as sex slave and wives Oh but thats different. how many times have u been to Africa? Haiti? domenican Rep.? ME… oh lets see Cape town, Kenya (once for 2 months) HAITI, Port- au-Prince (lived 1yr 1/2) , Monga Bay, Haiti (lived 4 months), D.R ( 3 weeks).. I dont need a history book my friend. I worked missionary trip *Operation Liberation*and SEEN it with my own eyes and heard the stories of modern day slavery from the locals. Let me tell u something as well. Europeans break Afica???? Okay if I knew how to load pics on here I would show u whos been beaking them for the last 40-50yrs. We delivered rice and potatoes by cargo plane to Cape town, Kenya only to come back to see the rebel groups nd government sieze it so the people would not get it.sounds like you need to take a trip to the mother land b/c you obviously have been watching too much AMERICA TV and media bro. oh yeah, do ur reseach as well, look at haiti when they were under french control, when they gained thier independance only then did they decline to poverty. ASK A HAITIAN that was born there they will tell u

  39. I'm sure there are many other inventions that the inventor did not get credit for

  40. Paula Lindsay Ice Cream was invented by the Romans when they froze custard in snow shipped down from the mountains and pop corn was in use by the indigenous population of Mexico before the Spanish arrived.

  41. Yes find out who we really are tester an today

  42. Arzia Harris says:

    the automatic transmission-refrigeration-the cell phone-the automatic lubricator cup for locomotives aka the real mccoy the first successful open heart surgery -saving the country by electing the first Black president -would you like for me to go on?

  43. Arzia Harris says:

    the truth must remain hidden or they will know who they are.

  44. I grew up in a neighborhood that 150 years ago was plantation land in the Savannah, GA area. The Hermitage Plantation, where the Cotton Gin is said to have been created by Eli Whitney, is 2 blocks away from my home. As a child in the 60s, I sat & learned at the feet of neighborhood women in their 80s & 90s yoa. They insisted that Eli Whitney (the plantation school teacher) did not invent the Cotton Gin, but it was created by the blacksmith, who was a slave on the plantation. Tired of the women complaining of sore & bleeding cotton picking fingers, he crafted a machine that would pull the seeds out & save the fingers. The school teacher saw the time & money saving contraption & filed for a patent. He was sued by some local 'good ol boys who wanted to stake claim to the Cotton Gin, since the school teacher was not local The rest is history

  45. Sorry I am so late getting back to your racist non-sense. Who controls Haiti-fool? the economics of European powers or the blacks? really. you are a sad "eye-witness" to reality.

  46. Ray Lesene says:

    When will this country deal with the TRUTH? I know they can not handle the truth. Everyone reading this article I strongly suggest you all to check out the documentary entitled "HIDDEN COLORS", a real eye opener.

  47. LR Criner says:

    "Hidden Colors" 1, 2, & 3 sir……powerful.

  48. Ronelle Chaverst says:

    This paper is so depressing albeit informing yet depressing

  49. Leanne Franson The Africans didn't sell other African tribes into slavery they sold the southern tribes of Israel, which were Judah, Benjamin and Levi. The Israelites. Revelation 1:14-15 King James Version (KJV).
    14 His head and his hairs were white like wool, as white as snow; and his eyes were as a flame of fire;.
    15 And his feet like unto fine brass, as if they burned in a furnace; and his voice as the sound of many waters.

    Job 30:30
    My skin is black upon me, and my bones are burned with heat.

    Song of Solomon 1:5 -6.
    I am black, but comely, O yes daughters of Jerusalem, as the tents of Kedar, as the curtains of Solomon.

    6 Look not upon me, because I am black, because the sun hath looked upon me: my mother's children were angry with me; they made me the keeper of the vineyards; but mine own vineyard have I not kept.

    Jeremiah 8:21
    For the hurt of the daughter of my people am I hurt; I am black; astonishment hath taken hold on me.

    Jeremiah 14:2
    Judah mourneth, and the gates thereof languish; they are black unto the ground; and the cry of Jerusalem is gone up.

    Lamentations 4:8
    Their visage is blacker than a coal; they are not known in the streets: their skin cleaveth to their bones; it is withered, it is become like a stick.

    Isaiah 29:22
    Therefore thus saith the Lord, who redeemed Abraham, concerning the house of Jacob, Jacob shall not now be ashamed, neither shall his face now wax pale.

  50. Red Dipper says:

    " Saving the Country ".

    Are you Mad? This hell hole don't need saving!

  51. Arzia Harris says:

    Ben Goldman yeah they were pretty large back then.

  52. Please don't incorporate Obama with saving the economy, that would discredit you greatly if you knew how the country's economy truly worked. When in fact, his policies will deteriorate that economy by inhabiting small business which is the economy.

  53. Tarsherick HOLMES from PROCTOR ARKANSAS we lived on a plantation called "garret plantation " where abraham Lincoln was killed just seconds away.around the higwY is Hughes Arkansas' where they had a slave store its still standing to this day . and the garrett cotton gin remains .my life my story DA REAL TARSHERICK HOLMES album coming soon ! WE"R"HERE ENTERTAINMENT & PRODUCTION'S ITS REAL AS IT GETS ? Y ASK Y?

  54. Phillip Brown INHABITING ,, or was that inhibit? can you enunciate , clearly, what policy (s) that is hindering small business?, oh! health care… you should all be ashamed that the "GREATEST " country can't and won't provide a basic level of health care for its citizen… AMERICA is the ONLY industrialized country to NOT provide health care for it's populace..Thank God I live in CANADA, where sane heads have prevailed against the rapacious practices of the all consuming insurance companies..( by the way, its NOT FREE health care as its often characterized).. we ALL pay…

  55. You are badly mistaken to say a black man invented the cell phone lol that is very much untrue. Do your research before you speak.

  56. You are badly mistaken to say a black man invented the cell phone lol that is very much untrue. Do your research before you speak.

  57. Phillip Brown spoken like a true partisan ignoramus. Do you have any kind of degree in economics? If you are not an expert yourself you are not qualified to pass judgement. Bet you could not even come up with one economic theory.

  58. D Oliver Martin I am confused. If you do not have a mortgage then where are you supposed to live? Because if you rent then the landlord owns your soul.

  59. Jackie Berry says:

    LEARN from it…..

  60. Elle Diego says:

    Phillip Brown no one killed the small business quicker and more efficiently then Ronald Reagen during the 1980's.

  61. D Jones says:

    Jayrado GetFocused "Although no one person invented the cell phone; Jesse Russell was one of the key people to the invention of the today's cell phone."

  62. D Oliver Martin Grammar isn't the Tea Party members strong point. Just look at their protest signs. I don't have to look at the content of the paragraph, I just look for the first misspelled word in the age of auto-correct and realize its an uneducated opinion.

  63. (Montgomery obtained employment at a general store owned by his master Joseph Davis). We need to change how that is said now. It should say Montgomery obtained employment at a general store Enslaved by his kidnapper Joseph Davis.

  64. Jamie MrBrownstone Still I am from next door Dominican Republic and can tell you Haiti's condition is because the imperial powers didn't want other slaves revolting so in a concerted effort to thwart any agitation in their colonies they fucked haiti in the ass raw dog economically..they REFUSED to trade with her and FORCED her to pay reparations to FRANCE who still lives off of tribute from former colonies…so your bullshit rhetoric conveniently excludes FACTS AND tries to justify your prejudice..then to top it off you assholes want my side of the island a former colony itself a developing country to fix YOUR racial bullshit and take the whole lot and put further economic strain than we already have while YOU live high off the hog because he who has the guns rule…and missionaries are just there to pacify the population while surveying the wealth of the land and reporting to the oppressor…

  65. I am so glad to finally find the comment that said it. We want to make money so bad that we will sell to the highest bidder and that bidder puts a white face on it.

  66. Jamie MrBrownstone Still Not sure where to begin, but slavery was a common practice back then. American slavery was a whole new ball game that introduced chattel slavery. This type was not practiced prior. Also the reason they inspected slaves to the level that they did was because they were looking for good breeders. They performed quite a few tests to determine the strongest types and best types for breeding.

    "C'mon a bunch I whites going to a black.
    Habitat greatly outnumbered kidnapping people without an uprising? Again common sense."—That would be nonsense except that is exactly what happened when colonization took place. Not to mention the Arabs use a similar tactic of destroying towns and kidnapping people that they later sell into slavery. It did not matter about the black inhabitants numbers because those blacks did not have guns or a meaningful way to stop them. Watch I am slave. It is based on a true story.

    Lastly, I have read slave journals and they key factor in many of them is that they were favored, yet they usually made note of other slaves that were not. Much of whom were beaten and a lack of adequate food. Not to mention those journals did not account for anywhere near the experience of most slaves.

  67. Amanda Blount You are correct, but I must make note that American slavery is alive and well. Just not talked about as much.

  68. Dave Misci That is actually incorrect. There was a case that proceeded that one. It was the case of John punch. He was sentenced to life servitude for trying to escape with two white slaves. Though he was the only one that was sentenced so harshly.

    This was not only the first slave held by a white master, but it also set a precedent that marked the distinctions between black and white slave.

  69. Sharina Badger Rodriguez Thank you….we can and need to do better. We are already on the verge of being wiped out in the USA. They are creating chemical warfare (aka ebola, AIDs) and allowing the World Health Organization to kill innocent Africans under the guise of immunizations. We got to wake up.

  70. and they better have them in this so-called african-american museum of history and culture they are building. they better have our medical firsts in their, too. I am going to see how honest they are going to get in this museum. I hope for the best but expect the least from them.

  71. Elte Jones says:

    Do it really matter we didn't make ourself slaves and I mean no disrespect to u

  72. Elte Jones says:

    Grew in greenwood miss. Went to grade school in money miss. Delabeck. The killer of Megan Evers , Emmett till, cousin was tucker the black man that told nbc cameraman on camera what it like to serve whites in miss 1965 snick & dick Gregory coming in 1956 Dogs used for fist time on black folks got more ugly history and I'm only 54

  73. Wayne Hogan says:

    The telephone pole, text book stop sign, light bulb Ext.

  74. Well I think the problem started with integration no more black business or colleges

  75. LR Cnr 4th on the way!

  76. We are and will always be a Brillant race of people. Though life itself seems to show us different , We will always Reign Supreme

  77. History has proved just How Brillant Black People were and are too this day! All over our planet, there are MORE young Black Children are College Ready, More than Any Culture.

  78. Dee Rankin says:

    Why can't this column about 5 Inventions about Slave Black Men Blocked by US PATENT OFFICE be shared on face book?

  79. Dee Rankin says:

    It is important and essential to get History of all Men/Women corrected so that all our Children will not continue telling the untruth (lies) to their children and generations to come! The Lord says: THOSE WHO KNOW MY WORDS WILL BE BEATEN WITH A MANY STRIPES, THOSE WHO DON'T KNOW MY WORDS WILL BE BEATEN WITH A FEW STRIPES! HE ALSO SAID: A LIAR WILL NOT TARRY IN HIS SIGHT…….ACCORDING TO THE WORD (BIBLE). The color of a person skin shouldn't make a difference who invented what……'s what they were gifted with from God and they used it to help all of us! If you know about a patent being used and someone or a family is taking credit for it, not only that, but they are living from the fruit (money) of that invention and you and or they continue to do so and not repent of this sin just like we have to repent from all sin……..there will be a High Price to pay according to the word (BIBLE). Heaven is real…….hell is real………read the story about Lazarus and the rich man! We must 'FORGIVE ONE ANOTHER', bring back the 'LOVE GOD CREATED US TO HAVE FOR ALL MANKIND'. STOP THIS MADNESS that the enemy (devil) has vomited nationwide. Our journey on this earth is saving our SOULS and help get as many as we can SOULS SAVED. WHERE IS THE LOVE? RACISM IS NOT BORN IN A HUMAN BEING……….IT IS TAUGHT, NOT ALWAYS NECESSARY BY VOICING IT, BUT OFTEN TIMES BY OUR ACTIONS. IF THERE WERE A RACE OF PEOPLE BETTER THAN THE OTHER RACE THEN WHY IS EVERYONE SUBJECT TO DIE AT SOME TIME OR ANOTHER? If I have offended anyone by what i have written because of the way i worded it, i am sorry, please forgive me, but i mean what i am saying. This rooted unheal sore of racism and hatred is as bad as……………………………..i can't think of nothin worse!

  80. I don't believe this was a video trying to give the confederate south credit and overshadow the evils they perpetrated against humanity?

    Whites like to say slavery was everywhere, but fail to mention Black Americans went through the worse type of slavery that was possible which still impacts them psychologically today. There is a difference between indentured servants and chattel slaves. Black Americans were chattel slaves that endeared the psychoterroism of Willie Lynch methods of "breaking" slaves.

    Black babies were used for alligator bait. Men were tied to two horses and ripped apart in front of the families to put fear in other men. Women were raped in front of their families by white men. And that's only part of what white americans did back then. If you really want to know how it was back then, watch this movie – Goodbye Uncle Tom –

  81. Amanda Blount Black Americans went through the worse type of slavery that was possible. There is a difference between indentured servants and chattel slaves. Black Americans were chattel slaves that endeared the psychoterroism of Willie Lynch methods of "breaking" slaves.

  82. Geo McDonald says:

    Creativity and the will to keep going are not limited by race

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