Monday, July 25th, 2016

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Moors, Saints, Knights and Kings: The African Presence in Medieval and Renaissance Europe

ST. ERASMUS AND ST. MAURICE IN HEAVEN. PHOTO BY RUNOKO RASHIDI

BY RUNOKO RASHIDI*

The study of the African presence in history, whether in the African Diaspora or Africa itself, is a richly rewarding endeavor. In this study we realize that slavery alone is not African history and that African history is everybody’s history. The history of African people — Black people — is rich and comprehensive, inspiring and, often, little known. Nowhere is this more the case than the African presence in Medieval and Renaissance Europe.

The Moors: Light of Europe’s Dark Age

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the Moors, as early as the Middle Ages and as late as the 17th century, were “commonly supposed to be black or very swarthy, and hence the word is often used for Negro.”

Early in the eighth century, after a grim and extended resistance to the Arab invasions of North Africa, the Moors joined the triumphant surge of Islam. Following this, they crossed over from Morocco over to the Iberian Peninsula where their swift victories and remarkable feats soon became the substance of legends.

In July 710, Tarif, with 400 foot soldiers and 100 horses, all Berbers, successfully carried out a mission in southern Iberia. Tarif, an important port city in southern Spain, is named after him.

It is clear, however, that the conquest of Spain was undertaken upon the initiative of Tarik ibn Ziyad. Tarik was in command of an army of at least 10,000 men.

ST. MAURICE AS A KNIGHT IN SHINING ARMOR. PHOTO BY RUNOKO RASHIDI

In 711, the bold Tarik crossed the straits and disembarked near a rock promontory, which from that day since has borne his name — Djabal Tarik (“Tarik’s Mountain”), or Gibraltar. In August 711, Tarik won paramount victory over the opposing European army. On the eve of the battle, Tarik is alleged to have roused his troops with the following words:

“My brethren, the enemy is before you, the sea is behind; whither would ye fly? Follow your general; I am resolved either to lose my life or to trample on the prostrate king of the Romans.”

Wasting no time to relish his victory, Tarik pushed on with his dashing and seemingly tireless Moorish cavalry to the Spanish city of Toledo. Within a month’s time, General Tarik ibn Ziyad had effectively terminated European dominance of the Iberian Peninsula.

In the aftermath of these brilliant struggles, thousands of Moors flooded into the Iberian Peninsula. So eager were they to come that some are said to have floated over on tree-trunks. Tarik himself, at the conclusion of his illustrious military career, retired to the distant East, we are informed, to spread the teachings of Islam.

There is really no need to speculate on the ethnicity of these early invaders of the conquest period. Primary Christian sources relating to the conquest, particularly the Primera Cronica General of Alfonso X, make the following observation regarding the Moors: “Their faces were black as pitch, the handsomest amongst them was as black as a cooking pot.”

ST. MAURICE UNDER THE GERMANY IMPERIAL EAGLE. PHOTO BY RUNOKO RASHIDI

The Black Saint Maurice: Knight of the Holy Lance

Of all the many Black men in the history of Europe, few have excited the imagination more than Saint Maurice. He was a Black saint in an area then and now that has very few Black inhabitants. He was also a Black knight. Indeed, we could call him a knight in shining armor. He is no less than remarkable.

The name Maurice is derived from Latin and means “like a Moor.” The Black Saint Maurice (the Knight of the Holy Lance) is regarded as the great patron saint of the Holy Roman Germanic Empire. He is also known, especially in Germany, as Saint Mauritius. The earliest version of the Maurice story and the account upon which all later versions are based, is found in the writings of Bishop Euchenus of Lyons, who lived more than 1500 years ago. According to Eucherius, Saint Maurice was a high official in the Thebaid region of Southern Egypt — a very early center of Christianity.

Specifically, Maurice was the commander of a Roman legion of Christian soldiers stationed in Africa. By the decree of Roman emperor Maximian, his contingent of 6,600 men was dispatched to Gaul and ordered to suppress a Christian uprising there. Maurice disobeyed the order. Subsequently, he and almost all of his troops were martyred when they chose to die rather than persecute Christians, renounce their faith and sacrifice to the gods of the Romans. The execution of the Theban Legion occurred in Switzerland near Aganaum (which later became Saint Maurice-en-Valais) on Sept. 22, either in the year 280 or 300.

In the second half of the fourth century, the worship of St. Maurice spread over a broad area in Switzerland, northern Italy, Burgundy, and along the Rhine. The major cities of Tours, Angers, Lyons, Chalon-sur-Saone, and Dijon had churches dedicated to St. Maurice.

By the epoch of Islamic Spain, the stature of St. Maurice had reached immense proportions. Charlemagne, the grandson of Charles Martel and the most distinguished representative of the Carolingian dynasty, attributed to St. Maurice the virtues of the perfect Christian warrior. In token of victory, Charlemagne had the Lance of St. Maurice (a replica of the holy lance reputed to have pierced the side of Christ) carried before the Frankish army. Like the general populace, which strongly relied on St. Maurice for intercession, the Carolingian dynasty prayed to this military saint for the strength to resist and overcome attacks by enemy forces.

ST MAURICE IN MADGEBURG

In 962, Otto I chose Maurice as the title patron of the archbishopric of Magdeburg, Germany. By 1000 C.E. the worship of Maurice was only rivaled by St. George and St. Michael. After the second half of the 12th century, the emperors were appointed by the pope in front of the altar of St. Maurice, in St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome.

In Halle, Germany, a monastery with a school attached to it was founded and dedicated to St. Maurice in 1184. In 1240, a splendid Africoid statue of St. Maurice was placed in the majestic cathedral of Magdeburg — the first Gothic cathedral built on German soil. I was actually able to visit this cathedral and photograph the statue in 2010. The facial characteristics of the statue are described by historian Gude Suckale-Redlefsen in his classic work, The Black Saint Maurice, as follows:

“The relatively small opening in the closely fitting mail coif was sufficient for the Magdeburg sculptor to produce a convincing characterization of St. Maurice as an African. The facial proportions show typical alterations in comparison with European physiognomy. The broad, rounded contours of the nose are recognizable although the tip has been broken off.

“The African features are emphasized by the surviving remains of the old polychrome. The skin is colored bluish black, the lips are red, and the dark pupils stand out clearly against the white of the eyeballs. The golden chain mail of the coif serves, in turn, to form a sharp contrast with the dark face.”

A center of extreme devotion to St. Maurice was developed in the Baltic states, where merchants in Tallin and Riga adopted his iconography. The House of the Black Heads of Riga, for instance, possessed a polychromed wooden statuette of St. Maurice. Their seal bore the distinct image of a Moor’s head.

In 1479, Ernest built several castles, one of which he named after St. Maurice — the Moritzburg. Under a banner emblazoned with the image of a Black St. Maurice, the political and religious leaders of the Holy Roman Empire battled the Slavs. The cult of St. Maurice reached its most lavish heights under Cardinal Albert of Brandenburg (1490-1545), who established a pilgrimage at Halle in honor of the Black saint.

From the early 16th century, and now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, hangs a magnificent painting by Lucas Granach, the elder of St. Maurice, resplendent as a knight in shining armor. In the Alta Pinakothek in Munich hangs the painting by Matthias Grunewald of St. Maurice and St. Erasmus in heaven. Grunewald was the greatest painter of the German Renaissance. And in the Gemaldegalerie in Berlin is the painting by Hans Baldung Grien of St. Maurice under the banner flag of the German imperial eagle on one side, a painting of the adoration of the magi (with a Black king, the youngest of the three magi), in the center, and St. George and the dragon on the opposite side. I have seen and photographed all four of these magnificent art objects.

Between 1523 and 1540, people from throughout the empire journeyed to Halle to worship the relics of St. Maurice. The existence of nearly 300 major images of the Black St. Maurice have been catalogued, and even today the veneration of St. Maurice remains alive in numerous cathedrals in eastern Germany.

A FLEMISH PAINTING OF THE WISE AFRICAN KING IN THE EUROPEAN RENAISSANCE. PHOTO BY RUNOKO RASHIDI (1)The Black King in the Art of the European Renaissance

One of the most fascinating aspects of the African presence in Europe is the wide collection of images of the Black Magus/King in European art. Although sometimes identified as a Moor, he is not a Muslim. Such paintings adorn the galleries and museums throughout Europe and the United States. These are wonderful images of the wise and distinguished African king who followed a star and came to pay homage and provide rich treasures to the Christ child in the time of Herod in the manger in Bethlehem as described in the Gospel of Matthew.

The appearance of the Black king in European art appears at least by the 14th century and probably earlier. The Moors were a fixture in Europe at this time. By the 15th and 16th centuries, thousands of paintings depicting the Adoration of the Black Magus or King had been made.

The Black magus is the youngest of the three kings and traditionally he is said to come from Ethiopia. He is sometimes called a Moor and he is, interestingly enough, the king who stands farthest away from the Christ child. His name is Balthazar and his present to the Christ child is the gift of myrrh.

Sometimes, particularly in the Dutch world, another of the kings is identified as Black. This is Gaspar, identified as a king from Asia and he is also credited sometimes as bringing myrrh, and sometimes frankincense.

A BLACK KNIGHT IN MEDIEVAL EUROPE

Sir Morien: Black Knight of King Arthur’s Round Table

Few documents portray the ethnicity of the Moors in medieval Europe with more passion, boldness and clarity than Morien. Morien is a metrical romance rendered into English prose from the medieval Dutch version of the Lancelot.

Morien is the adventure of a splendidly heroic Moorish knight (possibly a Christian convert), supposed to have lived during the days of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table. Morien is described as follows:

“He was all black, even as I tell ye: his head, his body, and his hands were all black, saving only his teeth. His shield and his armour were even those of a Moor, and black as a raven.”

Initially in the adventure, Morien is simply called “the Moor.” He first challenges, then battles, and finally wins the unqualified respect admiration of Sir Lancelot. In addition, Morien is extremely forthright and articulate. Sir Gawain, whose life was saved on the battlefield by Sir Morien, is stated to have “harkened, and smiled at the black knight’s speech.” It is noted that Morien was as “black as pitch; that was the fashion of his land — Moors are black as burnt brands. But in all that men would praise in a knight was he fair, after his kind. Though he were black, what was he the worse?” And again: “his teeth were white as chalk, otherwise was he altogether black.”

“Morien, who was black of face and limb” was a great warrior, and it is said that: “His blows were so mighty; did a spear fly towards him, to harm him, it troubled him no whit, but he smote it in twain as if it were a reed; naught might endure before him. Ultimately, and ironically, Morien came to personify all of the finest virtues of the knights of medieval Europe.

“It should be noted that for a very long period the Dutch language used Moor and Moriaan for Black Africans.”

Among the Lorma community in modern Liberia, the name Moryan is still prominent.

MOORISH NOBLES IN SPAIN. FROM THE CHESSBOOK OF ALPHONSO X

The Expulsion From Spain and the Dispersal of the Moors

In Iberia, Christian pressures on the Moors grew irresistible. Finally, in 1492, Granada, the last important Muslim stronghold in al-Andalus, was taken by the soldiers of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, and the Moors were expelled from Spain. In 1496, to appease Isabella, King Manuel of Portugal announced a royal decree banishing the Moors from that portion of the peninsula. The Spanish king Philip III expelled the remaining Moors by a special decree issued in 1609. Fully 3,500,000 Moors, or Moriscos, as their descendants were called, left Spain between 1492 and 1610.

An estimated million Moors settled in France. Others moved into Holland. A very curious story in the Netherlands is that of Zwarte Piet (Black Peter). By some accounts Zwarte Piet, the companion to Sinterklaas (Santa Claus), was a Moorish orphan boy whom Sinterklaas adopted and trained as his assistant.

By 1507, there were numerous Moors at the court of King James IV of Scotland. One of them was called Helenor in the Court Accounts, possibly Ellen More. There were at least two other Black women of the royal court who held positions of some status, and they are stated as having had maidservants dress them in expensive gowns.

In 1596, Queen Elizabeth, highly distressed at the growing Moorish presence in England, wrote to the lord mayors of the major cities that:

“There are of late divers blakamores brought into this realm, of which kinde of people there are already too manie.”

*Runoko Rashidi is based in Los Angeles and Paris. He is the author of “Black Star: The African Presence in Early Europe.” In August 2014, he is leading a tour group through several cities in Western Europe focusing on the African heritage, especially in the museum collections. For more information and to join the tour write to: Runoko@yahoo.com or go to www.travelwithrunoko.com

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Comments

  1. Mane stolly zi nkolela….che chow Seka

  2. Eric Scott says:

    The Battle Continues..

  3. Love it, love it, love it…

  4. moores were the influence behind bringing Europe out of the dark ages.. the building of castles came from African kings and royalty. our history is great and far surpasses all cultures!!!

  5. the article on the Moors was good & essential to clarifying aspects of history omitted , the Moors were the only culture going on in dark age Europe

  6. Gina Love says:

    I was fortunate enough to learn about my rich history since I was a young girl from a wise woman called my MOTHER! thanks Mom! Also, the Moors and people with pigmentation had civilization throughout the world before the Caucasoid race settled or stole their land.

  7. the Moors are mixture between the Mauritania people of west Africa & the conquering Arab Muslim nation , creating a viable Caliphate in Europe

  8. Wow thank you so this really my best reading on the Moors n how the Cane into Islam.

  9. Very important for all people to read, especially those of African decent

  10. Thank you for the knowledge

  11. Sooo much of Black history, in this world, is slowing being revealed…..the truth, as well as this truth, has given me….some wisdom, into my ancestors and influence within the world—–Now, I no longer have to wait, to expell, to discard my physical body, and go to Heaven, where all truths, like this, will be unveiled….to me, by my FATHER—-He gives me pieces of "truths" in accordance to his guidance, because I can't, and HE knows, truth, like wisdom. can only be dispersed…..in "drips." and sometime "drops," because we can't handle it, all at once! My FATHER knows the great works of man…..however, Satan, has, and continues to use "color"——for………division, and dispell…..untruths. I am happy today, God, has taught me……more! PEACE.

  12. The Black Nobility or Black Aristocracy (Italian: "nobiltà nera" or "aristocrazia nera") are Roman aristocratic families who sided with the Papacy under Pope Pius IX after the Savoy family-led army of the Kingdom of Italy entered Rome on September 20, 1870, overthrew thePope and the Papal States, and took over the Quirinal Palace, and any nobles subsequently ennobled by the Pope prior to the 1929 Lateran Treaty. For the next 59 years, the Pope confined himself to Vatican City and claimed to be a prisoner in the Vatican to avoid the appearance of accepting the authority of the new Italian government and state. Aristocrats who had been ennobled by the Pope and were formerly subjects of the Papal states, including the senior members of the Papal Court, kept the doors of their palaces in Rome closed to mourn the Pope's confinement, which led to their being called the "Black Nobility".Despite the relatively recent name, the Black Nobility had existed for centuries, originating in the Baronal class of Rome and in the powerful families who moved to Rome to benefit from a family connection to the Vatican. These supported the Popes in the governance of the Papal States and in the administration of the Holy See. Many of the members of Black Noble families also became high-ranking clergy and even Popes. Black Nobility families (in this instance families whose ancestors included Popes) still in existence include notably the Colonna, Massimo, Orsini, Ruspoli, Pallavicini, Borghese, Odescalchi, and Ludovisi. Major extinct papal families include the Savelli, Caetani, the Aldobrandini family and Conti. Famous members of Black Nobility families include Eugenio Pacelli, who later became Pope Pius XII, Ernesto Pacelli, an important financier and Prospero Colonna, mayor of Rome.Following the conclusion of the Lateran Treaty in 1929, the Black Nobility were given dual citizenship in Italy and Vatican City. Under the provisions of the treaty, noble titles granted by the pope were recognized in the Kingdom of Italy. Many of these families were members of the largely ceremonial Papal Noble Guard; others were foreigners affiliated with the Holy See in various ways. In 1931, Pope Pius XI denied the request of Alfonso XIII of Spain to open the Noble Guard further to nobles from all Catholic countries. In World War II, the Papal Noble Guard guarded the Pope alongside the Swiss Guard.

    Pope Paul VI abolished many Vatican City positions with the apostolic lettermotu proprio Pontificalis Domus (English: The Papal Household) in 1968. As well as changing the name of the group from Papal Court to Papal Household, many of the positions occupied by the Black Nobility were abolished. According to the motu proprio:

    "Many of the offices entrusted to members of the Papal Household were deprived of their function, continuing to exist as purely honorary positions, without much correspondence to concrete needs of the times.

    "Many of these positions and the Papal Court itself were still set up for administering the Papal States, which had been lost in 1870. The Black Nobility's perks, such as Vatican City licence plates, were also withdrawn. Some Black Nobles resented these changes. In May 1977, some members of the Black Nobility, led by Princesss Elvina Pallavicini, started courting traditional Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre.

  13. Mike W Harper says:

    Where's the references?

  14. Ryan Smith says:

    the moors were not all black or african. they had babies like all groups of people and you can tell by looking at their ancestors what they mostly looked like. moroccans are what moors lok like. moors were pirates that controlled southern europe for like 700 years, not england. this is afrocentrism and racist. the black israelites try to say everyone was black but there is proof its not true and no proof it is.

  15. Ryan Smith says:

    its not true. sadly most people believe what they want is if its in an article of the internet it somehow makes it even more credible.

  16. This is a total propaganda piece. Even when it says something factual it rips it from it'd context and offers a supportive one. More baloney from the minority black cult.members of America. Lol the moors were black…. that's funny. They had millions of black.slaves. most of the enormous African slaves trade of the Arabs and.jorth Africans was 2/3rd were women and 1 3rd were men. The men were made eunuchs and soldiers the women were sex slaves primarily. In one battle alone in a. Landalus the non black.moors were fed up with out. Numbering the Spanish and yet still.losing. so they purchased 500 000 black.slaves and arched them into battle…….a force of 50 thousand Spanish kicked there buts. All this nonsense and purposely is leading. People. Yes anywhere the church was sent saints were created so we're clergy men. There are the martyrs or saints of Uganda. Who stood up to the rampant Homosexuality in there kingdom and by the king. Thanks to catholics teaching them.it was wrong. They were killed by there homosexuals. King mwango. And made saints by the Catholic Church. Now kings? That never once happened..not a single.moorish ruler of.wh9ch we have art depictions. Of them.all in there time and.none.are blacks. The six north african rulers of.rome…..we're all whites as well.

  17. Very interesting, since I am of the LORMA tribe mentioned in the article…I am not sure about the accuracy of the article, nevertheless, it has some truth to it. We the Lorma people that are now found in West Africa, in Liberia and Guinea, came from ancient Egypt and settle on the west coast of Africa like many other African tribes, and did a lots of travelings in other places as well. I give credit to the writer.

  18. Hmm

  19. An if U don't believe this. Follow the making of the Afro/blk called Saint Patrick. Yea! The one that millions of haters of Afro/blks, celebrate all year long. Hhuummm.mm.

  20. This is for all people. The Egyptian Named(Amen) an the slave ship that brought slaves to the amerikkkas was called Christ/jesus?/ Check Ur notes.

  21. One of the first slave ship was call the Good Ship Jesus

  22. That's what I'm talking about bro Rowley. Thk U. Good looking out.

  23. Brittannica Encyclopedia for Tariq Ibnhttp://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/583587/Tariq-ibn-Ziyad

  24. there's one I guess I gotta prove black history to you since it's still black history month and black history is still not important enough to be taught in schools.

  25. Why do we have to find stories of our we fit into European culture, religion and society?.. why do we have a tendency to want to validate ourselves with the euro centric standards?.

    Slavery is over. It's time we start learning to be free from the inside. Free from the bonding that we were placed into

  26. Why do we have to find stories of our we fit into European culture, religion and society?.. why do we have a tendency to want to validate ourselves with the euro centric standards?.

    Slavery is over. It's time we start learning to be free from the inside. Free from the bonding that we were placed into

  27. Go to Spain. Go to Toledo, Grenada and Seville. You'll see the evidence. Spaniards know. They teach their children only here in the US do people question….and YES! I've been. I've seen the Alhambra, Moorish architecture and the remnants of the Moors!

  28. History is so amazing what you could fine out

  29. Look up Moorish Science Temple of America or Noble Drew Ail for some moor (more) enlightenment. Peace

  30. God you actually believe that about Europe? This huge continent of many cultures that stretches from Ireland and Portugal in the West to the very edges of Russia in the East? There was a massive wave of Christian culture taking place alongside the indigenous pagan cultures here, just look at the art, jewellery, religious rituals, weapons, manuscripts and surviving architecture of that era. Just look at the tiny country of Wales for example and see the poets, bards and tales it has produced from "The Dark Ages", and Ireland was actually known as "The Land of the Saints" and her people spread all over the known world promoting Christianity and teaching the art of the written language. You're doing a great disservice to history and all races by believing anti-European propaganda.

  31. The Berbers are indigenous to Africa and they even have a percentage of blondes in their people, I think it's about 10%. Why are people peddling lies about Europe?

  32. Wrong. Christianity brought Europe out of the dark ages, when nations like England were formed and dynasties gathered strength. Europe is bigger than you imagine and we have many cultures here. Much of our culture and language comes from the Greeks and Romans, and it was the Romans who brought us our great unifying, enlightening religion of Christianity, it was also the European Romans in North Africa that influenced architecture there, not the other way around, see that style of building around a courtyard? You can thank the Greeks and Romans. Moors are not just black, they are mostly Arabic, Semite people, more like the Coptic Christians and the Moroccans today. To call someone "black/swarthy" in Europe did not mean they had black skin, although it could mean that for some, the term was more widely used for people with black hair and brows, and even white skinned blue and green eyed Celts and Norsemen could have those features!

  33. get spike lee or ava duvary to do a movie on st maurice.

  34. My questions are, how did the North Afuraka Afuraitkait black man 'Tarif ibn Ziyad's first name turn into 'Tarik' and his warriors turned from 'Berbers' to 'moors' and when did this become a conquest of invasion, when spain was in dire ruins, poor, and full of disease, famine, and illiteracy? and another thing, why is the photo of Tarif shown here that he was a brown skinned man, not even half way into this writing? When it was told in the book that the people said when he, and his dashing valiant 400 men trotted in, they all were as black as ink, and as pretty as a picture and the albion women were screaming, begging, and flaunting at them. That even their horses were draped in silver n' gold; Now you tell me, who fights all decked out like this? This 712 A D venture to spain from the North Afurakan Berbers was a miracle 'rescue' for helping the europeans from out under their darkest ages n' victims of brutal tragedy caused by their own euro people of ignorance, and neglect…We are now enduring the euros 2nd dark ages today with everything that's 'true' is being hidden, stolen, misappropriated, and dwelling senselessly underneath many a LIE…and a sad 'unbalanced' chaotic existence…IT looks like we could use another visit from the amazing Berbers, and sir Tarif again.

  35. Again, My questions are as I read this piece is, how did the North Afuraka Afuraitkait black man 'Tarif ibn Ziyad's first name turn into 'Tarik' and his warriors turned from 'Berbers' to 'moors' and when did this become a conquest of invasion, when spain was in dire ruins, poor, and full of disease, famine, and illiteracy when Tarif arrived? and another thing, why is the photo of Tarif shown here that he was a brown skinned man, all of this discrepancy not even half way into this writing? When it was told in the book that the people said when he, and his dashing valiant 400 men trotted in, they all were as black as ink, and as pretty as a picture and the albion women were screaming, begging, and flaunting at them. That even their horses were draped in silver n' gold; Now you tell me, who fights all decked out like that? This 712 A D venture to spain from the North Afurakan Berbers was a miracle 'rescue' for helping the europeans from out under their darkest ages n' victims of brutal tragedy caused by their own euro people of ignorance, and neglect…We are now enduring the euros 2nd dark ages today with everything that's 'true' is being hidden, stolen, misappropriated, and dwelling senselessly underneath many a LIE…and a sad 'unbalanced' chaotic existence…IT looks like we could use another visit from the amazing Berbers, and sir Tarif again.

  36. Anastasia Nemcova If by Christianity, you mean the Jews, and Moors then you are correct. Copernicus and other "rennaisance geniuses" were great plagiarists whose main mental superpower was the ability to read Arabic. Europe would have no concept of Ancient Greek culture if it weren't recorded in Arabic. Algebra, Alchemy, alkaline, alcohol…these scientific words are all from Arabic.

  37. Thank you. Great information and insight Lorraine, well said.

  38. Anastasia Nemcova Alexander Pushkin, the famous RUSSIAN poet is black.

  39. Anastasia Nemcova Please provide proof that can be referenced. Saint Maurice of Germany was black. Look at the statues and crests. Maurice is latin for "Like A Moor." Please provide proof to counter my Statement. I got my information for J.A. Rogers book, "100 Amazing Facts About the Negro." Pg.17 #53.

  40. Ryan Smith Funny how you can't provide any references of your own to counter these claims. The author listed references from people who lived during that time, yet you choose to ignore it. Saint Maurice of Germany was black. All the statues, paintings and Crests clearly show he was black.

  41. THE BLACKMAN IS GOD, AND WE HAVE THE DOMINANT GENETICS TO PROVE IT….RECESSIVE MUST COME THRU DOMINANT TO GET BACK TO GOD……MELANIN IS THE KEY, AND DOMINANT GENETICS BREEDS MELANIN….WAKEUP WHITE PEOPLE, THE LIE OF WHITE SUPREMACY HURTS YOU MORE THAN THE BLACKMAN……

  42. THE BLACKMAN IS GOD, AND WE HAVE THE DOMINANT GENETICS TO PROVE IT….RECESSIVE MUST COME THRU DOMINANT TO GET BACK TO GOD……MELANIN IS THE KEY, AND DOMINANT GENETICS BREEDS MELANIN….WAKEUP WHITE PEOPLE, THE LIE OF WHITE SUPREMACY HURTS YOU MORE THAN THE BLACKMAN……

  43. Well, considering that people considered honorable or noble such as Tarif were commonly painted in a way that would reflect them positively, it is not surprising that he and his soldiers and fellow knights were painted in rich formal dress with adoring lackeys. Note that they, or others who had commissioned their portraits, had to PAY to be painted like this too.

    The 'rescue mission' probably turned into a 'conquest' when the formerly uneducated populace began to rankle under the (out of touch?) ruling class, and when the ruling class was expelled it could no longer write history. As might be happening these days, like you said.

  44. Its also a contradiction to the notion that Europeans were uniformly racist. Its lovely.

  45. integration does that to us while the euros don't want a thing to do with us; we did and initiated into creation everything from the beginning, that is being done, and made today gave, and helped all others their incentive, so when will we ever get it? is right…smh.

  46. People truly need to dispel any religion+polotricks since the 6th century; they've all been contaminated and is when all 'peace' began to fade by the foreigners of the euro/jew/aian/arab=aka assyrians nations. They have polluted anything that we know of today into their version of his'story. The Trustory is of our own Afuraka Afuraitkait Ancestral Religion of Spirituality of the Maa and Ma'at…of balance and order/common sense of a wholesome living for all people of the world..as was the intent of Mansa Musa and many of our true ancient Black governors of the earth, who all ran the only true civilizations we ever had…

  47. stop lying and blacks are no where near being a minority, you wish…its wasn't called slavery until the 1400s, otherwise it was servitude prior.all that you speak of and are trying to twist into your view of it because you cant handle the truth only happened after the euro/jew pope innocence and jew/euro pope v sanctioned the now harsh 'slavery' as of the 1400s AD… Also, these indigenous expertise black as ink men of North Afuraka were "Berbers" not moors; that became their name after their defeat by the euro-turks/jews and fall in 1492 AD.. and for your info..the word arab' just as jew are both an aberration, made up to camouflage the truth of these true name 'assyrians' the mad men, the mixed bastards of the bastards until this day! 'arab' is of no ethnicity, in fact Arabic is our original indigenous black language that 'all' of the other languages until today stems from. you jealous mf you.. Afuraka Afuraitkait the autonomous black people are who wrote the first writing, language, math, agriculture, architect, science, etc…all, and more, contributing it to this world.

  48. stop lying mis-educated cracker:
    stop lying and blacks are no where near being a minority, you wish…its wasn't called slavery until the 1400s, otherwise it was servitude prior.all that you speak of and are trying to twist into your view of it because you cant handle the truth only happened after the euro/jew pope innocence and jew/euro pope v sanctioned the now harsh 'slavery' and crime genocide as of the 1400s AD… Also, these indigenous expertise black as ink men of North Afuraka were "Berbers" in 712 AD, and not moors; that became their name after their defeat by the euro-turks/jews and fall in 1492 AD.. and for your info..the word arab' just as jew are both an aberration, made up to camouflage the truth of these true name 'assyrians' the mad men, the mixed bastards of the bastards until this day! 'arab' is of no ethnicity, in fact Arabic is our original indigenous black language that 'all' of the other languages until today stems from. you jealous mf you.. Afuraka Afuraitkait the autonomous black people are who wrote the first writing, language, math, agriculture, architect, science, etc…all, and more, contributing it to this world. And to add: all BS 6th century contaminated by the euro/jews/allies n' some negro coons too of religion+polotricks, are all fake , deception, and lies, for 'white supremacy' greed, controlling/robbing the masses of the people in this world, loosing its 'peace' until this day!

  49. (K)African people either created or transmitted through diffusionism all the civilizations and cultures around the world… The Cro-Magnon people in Europe are direct descendants of Black (K)Africans as were the Neanderthals hundreds of thousands of years earlier… Babylonian civilization and culture is Ethiopian… The Arabic and Hebrew languages and writing scripts belongs to the Semitic branch of the Ethiopian Amharic language… Greek and Cycladic island civilization evolved from the Libyan, Egyptian, Ethiopian and Canaanite culture that were transmitted there by (K)African colonizers… Chinese civilization and culture spring from the Xia and Shang Dynasties, both of which were Black (K)African Dynasties… Olmec Culture in Mexico were created by Egyptians and Canaanites with massive contributions from west central Africans in the late period… All Native American culture evolved from Olmec… Indian and south-east Asian people are Kushite people from north-east (K)Africa… In the final analysis, all the people on the planet are (K)African people and all civilization, culture, the arts and the sciences were created by Black (K)African people…

  50. This is good but lacks supporting reference in APA format. I would love to read this again with supporting format. Good job.

  51. What book are you referring to, Lorraine? I would like to read it too! Thank you! 🙂

  52. This is for those who say that the Moors were not all black in color. The word 'Moor' literally means 'black' as they are both adjectives used to describe the outward appearance of a people. The word 'Moor' is also a legal classification. In basic terms the word 'Moor' means "of the stock of melanated peoples." Therefore different nationalities of indigenous people from all over the world can be identified as Moors. However, historically the term Moor originated from the people of North Africa also known as the Berbers who later became known as Moroccans. These are the people who fled Khemet/Egypt after being invaded by the Greeks and Romans. Europeans have a tendency to claim our history as their own as they have always been known to do because they do not have a history as widespread and as rich as ours. Caucasoids have only been around on this planet for about 6000 years which interestingly enough coincides with their bible. Their entire history has been plagiarized from our ancestors. Just like they try to say that the Khemites/Egyptians were not 'black' now but European when they themselves named their land Khem which literally means 'community of the blacks'.

  53. Yes, I too am tired of us looking at ourselves through the lens of Eurocentric values. It irks me when people say things like "we had kings and queens too" or, for that matter, claim to be the "original jews" or christians or whatever. I mean, really(?) Monarchs exploited people, wars are waged with a goal to subjugate…Why would we want to be like that anyway? Why don't more scholars discuss the patterns of African communalism or the countless instances of peaceful migrations of Bantu peoples? Why on Earth would we want our story to mimic theirs? It's like we are always looking at things through their paradigm. It is wonderful that some historian took the time out to gather these documents and make an interpretation. But, in no way does this…make me feel proud…It does not validate my blackness.

  54. My man, Europe was INVADED by white Germanic tribes – who are NOT from Europe! They helped destroy Rome and went into NW Africa. The Moors beat them out of Africa (or they joined with them) and went into Europe to take BACK what was black. The Moors battled invading Germanic tribes, NOT indigenous white Europeans, as the Europeans were black and mixed from Rome.

  55. Moorish Science Temple has nothing to do with African Moors. It is moor confusion like the Nation of ISLAM, which is not islamic.

  56. Kelvin: You are an Africa, so what do you mean "slavery is over?" Try freeing Nigerian courts from British styles, then get back to us.

  57. Marjorie Lloyd The truth is the truth. This article only tells part of the truth. You as an educator clearly only want any truth that sounds good to you.

  58. Anastasia Nemcova The blonds come from the GERMANIC tribes who invaded Europe and NW Africa, plus Eastern European white slaves imported into the area by black Arabs and black Moors. Note that the Moorish lands were NOT under WHITE (how come you don't claim them?) Ottoman Turk rule.

  59. Anastasia Nemcova Europe is not hudge and it wats black, until slowly taken over by whites. That is what the wars were about. Whites come from Cnetral Asia, see the Tarim Mummies for your history.

  60. They call it the dark ages because the black man ruled and the savage Germanic tribes overran Europe, but knew NOTHING. Those Germanic tribes are who rule now and formed the modern Western European nations that includes, UK, FR, BEL, GE, AU, NZ, US, CA, etc. A Germanic confederation are the whites of South Africa, with the Anglo and the Dutch.

  61. Lauren Holcomb Europe was BLACK, that is why there are somany black paintings. Whites are racist because they were usurping black Europe.

  62. This article is written in a way to admit the truth about the black man, while keeping up with the lies of the white man. They claim that black knights in Europe are from an area "then and now, that has few black inhabitant." That is BS. Europe WAS black, which is why you have all of these blacks in Europe! Whites are NOT from Europe and are mutant albinos, which you can clearly see in the pics of the whites – they have red OR yellow hair. Any with any other colo are mixed with blacks, who are indigenous.

  63. Not true at all, according to the scientists. First of all, it seems that we were all black in the beginning (although I'm not sure about Neanderthals), secondly, those who are not yellow or ginger haired in Europe/America/Africa/Asia etc. are not necessarily closer to blacks than other people. One brother might be blonde, the other have black hair, they still have the same dna.

  64. Joanna Vandenbring You are right that we were all so called 'black' or people of melanated hue, which were of many different facial characteristics and pheno types, at one time. Even so called Europeans and or Caucasoids are descendants of melanated people. I never said that the people of the bible were so called 'white'. I said that the Europeans/Caucasoids have been on the planet for around 6000 years which coincides with their bible. I say their bible not because the people spoken of in the bible were 'white' or European but because the bible was produced by Europeans who claim that the world is only 6000 years old. Why 6000 years? Because that's how long Caucasoids have been on the planet. So they wrote the bible a certain way to coincide with their time line to make it appear as though the people in there were 'white'. However the etomology of the the word 'Moor' is directly linked to the Berbers who were known as the blackest people that existed during a specific time. The Berbers later became known as the Moroccans hence the word Moor. My point was that Europeans are always trying to claim the history of melanated people as their own which is why they are now saying that the Moors were not 'black'. Just like they are now claiming that the Khemites or Egytians were not 'black'. As a way of trying to steal a history that does not belong to them. It called 'white-washing' and the Europeans have been doing it for a long time. It makes absolutely no sense to say that the Moors were not 'black' when in fact the word Moor literally means 'black'.

  65. Joanna Vandenbring dna cannot be the same. only similar. unless you're identical twins.

  66. Kelvin Okundaye yes! The voice of true freedom. The one from the grave of Able and not Cain.

  67. oh wow.

  68. Very good material!

  69. Anastasia Nemcova. You are way off baby cakes. Cause Moor means black or dark skinned. They brought Europe out of the dark ages and the early Moors of Spain and Western Europe were mostly Muslims and spoke and wrote Arabic Fluently cause Arabs spread Islam throughout Africa centuries before Christianity came there. The Moors brought restaurants, public bathrooms, lighted streets, libraries, schools, arcitecture, irrigation, and a globe to the Spainards and other Europeans whon once thought the world was flat. The rock of Gibraltar and the straights of Gibraltar are named after General Tarik, a black Moorish, Muslim general who led the charge to conquer Spain and Western Europe. The Moors ruled Western Europe for well over 700 years. I learned about the Moors back in high school. Dennis Hopper in True Romance went all in about the Moors of Italy, Sicily in particular. He was speaking fact. In fact, Sicily is full of so much African Presence from way back. Black Phoenicans from what is now Israel, formerly Canaan visited italy and brought pasta, known as spaghetti to that region 800 years before Marco Polo was even born. The Moors later perfected it and the Moors also brought new culinary standards and dress codes to the people of Europe. Ivan Van Sertima and Runoko Rashidi clarify this in great lengths in their books. The irrigation systems set up by the Moors was so advanced that the those pipes still run under the city of Palermo, Sicily to this very day. Remnants of their presence can found all over Europe today, especially in Italy and Spain. Many southern Italian cuizines today are full of African influence and its an Italian women who told me that. Look up the word MOOR and see what it means. You are way off baby cakes.

  70. Anastasia Nemcova you are an undercover white supremacist. The article above is fact and mountains upon mountains of physical evidence unearthed proves it many times over. You look silly arguing against it.

  71. Anastasia Nemcova Why is history that you are ignorant of ' anti-European propaganda'. That is an extremely unedyfying and sad response.

  72. Chris Tee Where did you get your history? From the KKK and ANP?

  73. Darrin Brewer— Could you give us the names and the bloodlines of the black Kings in Europe since 800 AD to 1800? Just one will do..

  74. Moor B Eauty — A wee but if history for you, Alexander Pushkin, the father of modern Russian literature, was in reality 1/4th black. His grandfather was actually an African slave, Abram Petrovich Gannibal, who later became a general to “Peter the Great”. The regional origin of Gannibal is often contested as it is often said that he was born in 1696 in the village of “Lagon” in modern-day Eritrea (a statue of Pushkin was erected in Asmara in 2009), while others claim that he was from the Logone-Birni area in Cameroon (possibly from the Kotoko kingdom or the Kanem-Bornu Empire).

  75. Ashley Dante Scott — lol go to the ancient Spanish Catholic churches, that were originally Mosques..
    http://historylists.org/architecture/5-most-impressive-historic-mosques-in-spain.html
    They are still some of the most beautiful mosques turned into Catholic Churces…

  76. RUNOKO RASHIDI left out many of the reasons the Moors were leaving the areas now known as Portugal and Spain, is that Queen Isabella's Inquisition was carried out against Jews and the Moors to torture them into being Christians, they were killed even if they became Christians or refusing to do so..
    The shocking thing is she also thought they were the cause of the Black Plague. When in fact, they kept themselves clean, while the Spainish and Portuguese bathed only once a year, whether they needed to or not..(one of the reasons perfume was created) The Moors had running water, even flushable toilets, while the white Christians dumped their sh*t pots out the windows and doors of their homes into the streets for people to wade through. The Moors and Jews also had pet cats, that killed the rats who carried the fleas that caused the Black Plague. and the reason why very few Jews and Moors died from the Plague. To good Christians of those days, cats were evil pets of witches and must be killed along with their owners.

  77. Moor B Eauty — yes he was black, but lived in an all white culture, somewhere in his background he entered Europe from Africa..

  78. The is romance of people invading another country and leaving out the gory details of slaughter of the people they invaded. This is happening today, it is called ISIS.

  79. A familiar story…..!!!!

  80. Anastasia Nemcova It's not anti-european propoganda. That comment sounds very ignorant. Just becuase you would rather believe the lies a racist institution tells you does not mean you can deny the very truth that's in front of you.

  81. Ryan Smith You seem extremely ignorant. You can find facts and sources for this information anywhere. I recommend a book sir. You don't need to be a genius to know that africans have a very long rich history everywhere. Just becuase a racist institution taught you otherwise does not make it untrue.

  82. Thank you for sharing this information. I live in Morocco right now and I can tell you that people here range from being orange haired and white to as dark as people from sub-saharan African countries. No surprise here that Moors are described as black, but I am sure that there was a good mixing of complexion going on there…

  83. i think the aguiment ends here. because people should just understand that genetically all other races came from the womb of the black woman. me for one the reason i pity a white person that hates an african is because i know we posses something that makes us one with nuture that all other races got only from us and that is melanin… You sum it all up John Lewis.

  84. there is a lot of misinformation about Christianity and Europe. Egypt and Ethiopia were the early bastions of Christianity.

  85. Orlando Coombs I think you missed her (Anastasia) point completely, try having another go.

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