The Black Panther Party vs. United States
The Black Panther Party was founded in Oakland, California by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale on October 15, 1966. BPP membership reached a peak of 10,000 by early 1969, acquiring 90% support from Black people in major cities in America. The organization is well known for advocating self-defense against police brutality. The Panthers also organized dozens of community programs such as free breakfast for children, health clinics and shoes for children.
J. Edgar Hoover called the BPP “the greatest threat to the internal security of the country,” and he supervised an extensive program called “COINTELPRO” that used surveillance, infiltration, raids, perjury, police harassment and many other tactics designed to undermine Panther leadership, incriminate party members and drain the organization of resources and manpower.
Most dramatically, on December 8, the LAPD enacted a warrant and deployed its new SWAT (Special Weapons and Tactics, a militarized police unit) teams. Using a battering ram, helicopters, a tank, trucks, dynamite, and 400 police officers, they raided three L.A. BPP facilities including the Oakland headquarters.
On December 4, 1969 in Chicago, two Black Panthers were killed when the Chicago police raided the home of Panther leader Fred Hampton. The raid had been orchestrated by the police in conjunction with the FBI. After the raid, Hampton and Panther guard Mark Clark, lay dead.
In October 1967, Oakland police officer John Frey, along with his backup Hervert Heanes, ambushed Panther leader Huey P. Newton during a traffic stop. During the stop, a gunfight broke out leaving Officer Frey dead and Officer Heanes wounded. Newton was arrested and charged with murder and released three years later after the charges were dismissed.
Pan Africanist Congress of Azania vs. South Africa’s Apartheid Government
The Pan Africanist Congress, abbreviated as the PAC, was a South African Black Nationalist movement that was founded by Robert Sobukwe. Drawing from the teachings of Marcus Garvey, Kwame Nkrumah, Anton Lembede, George Padmore, and W. E. B. Du Bois, the PAC’s main goal was to return South Africa to its indigenous inhabitants. They advocated the idea that the South African government should be constituted only by the African people who owe their allegiance to Africa and Africans, as stated by Sobukwe in the inaugural speech of the PAC:
“We aim, politically, for a government of the Africans by the Africans, for the Africans, with everybody who owes his only loyalty to Africa and who is prepared to accept the democratic rule of an African majority being regarded as an African.”
The PAC originally advocated such methods of political pressure as strikes and boycotts. On March 21, 1960, the PAC sponsored a nationwide one-day protest against the apartheid laws requiring Blacks to carry passes. In that demonstration, South African police fired into a crowd killing 69 Africans and wounding over 180, many of who were women and children.
To prevent any more protests and eradicate the PAC, the South African government employed tactics such as unlawful arrests, imprisonment, travel bans, and restrictions on speech. The apartheid regime officially outlawed the organization on April 8, 1960, by implementing a law that banned them.