W.E.B. Du Bois
The Massachusetts-born sociologist, historian, author, civil rights activist and Pan-Africanist became the first African-American to earn a doctorate before later becoming a professor of history, sociology and economics at Atlanta University. W.E.B. Du Bois also became one of the co-founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in the early 1900s. Du Bois garnered national recognition when he became the leader of the Niagara Movement, which was a group of African-American activists who pushed for equal rights for Blacks.
Hubert Henry Harrison
Hubert Henry Harrison was one of the most influential Black radical voices in New York in the 1900s. The St. Croix native came to the States at the age of 17 and would soon play a significant role in shaping Black consciousness in New York. From 1912 to 1914, Harrison was a leading Black organizer in the Socialist Party of America and later founded the Liberty League and The Voice, which was the first newspaper of the race-conscious “New Negro” movement. Activist A. Philip Randolph has described him as “the father of Harlem radicalism” and historian Joel Augustus Rogers said he was the “foremost Afro-American intellect of his time.” Others have also hailed him as the “Black Socrates.”