10 Black Philosophers Who Helped Spark Black Consciousness

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Steve Biko

Steve Biko

Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, Steve Biko was a prominent anti-apartheid activist in South Africa. As a student leader, he later founded the Black Consciousness Movement, which empowered many other Black individuals and coined the slogan “Black is beautiful.”

Anna J Cooper

Anna J. Cooper

The American author and educator is still remembered today as one of the most prominent African-American scholars in U.S. history. Anna J. Cooper was born into enslavement in North Carolina, but by the age of 10, she earned a scholarship that allowed her to kick-start her impressive academic career at Saint Augustine’s Normal School and Collegiate Institute in Raleigh. Cooper fought for the right to take a class that the school initially reserved for male students only. After receiving her Ph.D. from the University of Paris-Sorbonne in 1924, she became only the fourth Black woman to earn a doctoral degree.

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