This comparison ignores the unique history of discrimination against Black people in America. Over the past four centuries, Black history has included nearly 250 years of slavery, a hundred years of legalized discrimination, and only 50 years of anything else.
Jews and Asians, on the other hand, are part of populations that immigrated to North America and included doctors, lawyers, professors and entrepreneurs among their ranks. Moreover, European Jews are able to function as part of the white majority.
To expect African-Americans to show the same upward mobility as Jews and Asians is to deny the historical and social reality that Black people face.
Affirmative action requires the establishment of goals when either women or people of color are underrepresented within a certain group. Affirmative action regulations stipulate that goals serve as “targets reasonably attainable by means of applying every good faith effort to make all aspects of the entire affirmative action program work,” and that goals “may not be rigid and inflexible quotas, which must be met.”
Quotas may be imposed only by judicial order, and only as a last resort to redress a pattern of blatant discrimination.