According to research found in Dr. Chancellor Williams’ book, The Destruction of Black Civilizations, these are some of the internal and external causes that led to the fall of the great Ghana Empire.
1. Arab & Berber Aggression: Continuous raids by Semitic nomads of the desert, mostly Berbers and Arabs. These generally included Black Africans, Afro-Berbers and Afro-Arabs who had converted to Islam.
2. Dissatisfaction with the Government: Dissatisfaction with the central government that tended progressively to undermine the traditional constitutions of both the parent-nuclear state and the formerly independent states which now made up the empire.
3. Disunity: The desire for independence on the part of member states, or more security in an alliance with some other seemingly rising power, such as Mali.